Failure to Diagnose & Delay in Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

Evaluate breaches in the standard of care when determining Failure to Diagnose & Delay in Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

Answer the following questions to find out if the standard of care was followed for your case.

  • With which of the following symptoms did the patient present? (Choose all that apply)
    Fatigue
    Not elicited
    Answer unknown
    Weight loss/anorexia
    Depression
    Bloating / constipation
    Increased urinary frequency
    Why is this important?
    Ovarian cancer usually presents with non-specific symptoms. Usually, symptoms arise when the disease reaches an advanced stage.
    (2012) 39 EOGCNA 2 183-194

  • Was the patient's medical history elicited and documented? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    A detailed medical history and family history must be obtained to alert the clinician of any risk factors associated with development of cancer. Numerous reproductive, environmental and genetic risk factors have been identified as being precursors to ovarian cancer.
    (2010) 119 ESGYON 1 7-17

  • Which of the following risk factors of ovarian cancer did the patient exhibit? (Choose all that apply) Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    The risk factors for ovarian cancer include nulliparity, early menarche, late menopause, increasing age, caucasian descent, family history of ovarian or breast carcinoma, personal history of breast carcinoma, hormone replacement therapy and fertility drugs.
    (2010) 119 ESGYON 1 7-17

  • Was screening for ovarian cancer performed in a patient with a positive family history of ovarian cancer? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    All patients with a positive family history of ovarian cancer will require annual screening and monitoring.
    (2001) 28 EOGCNA 4 637-651

  • Was physical examination performed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    A complete medical history and carefully focused physical examination serve as the core of the diagnostic process. The information obtained guides the further direction of the patient's evaluation and enables the clinician to make the most judicious use of additional tests.
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  • Was the patient discharged and later diagnosed to have ovarian cancer? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Ovarian carcinoma may often be misdiagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome, stress, gastritis, or depression months prior to the date that the actual diagnosis of ovarian cancer is made.
    (2012) 39 EOGCNA 2 183-194

  • Were diagnostic laboratory investigations performed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Diagnostic laboratory studies are essential in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer.
    (2010) 119 ESGYON 1 7-17

  • Which of the following diagnostic imaging studies were performed? (Choose all that apply) Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), when used as a sole screening intervention for high risk women, has not been effective in identifying early-stage ovarian cancer.
    (2012) 26 EBPCOG 2 243-256

  • Was an adnexal mass detected? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    The standard method of screening for ovarian cancer is the palpation of an adnexal mass at the time of an annual pelvic examination.
    (2001) 28 EOGCNA 4 637-651

  • Which of the following imaging studies were performed? (Choose all that apply) Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    A CAT Scan and / or MRI scanning may be used for assessing metastasis.
    (2006) 60 ECRONH 2 159-179

  • Was the patient referred to a specialist? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Once priorities and goals have been agreed on, referral to the appropriate professionals should be made in a timely manner. To deliver care requires a coordinated approach that allows sharing of skills and expertise. The skills of members from all professional disciplines should be utilized to enable all patients to achieve their maximum potential.
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  • Was a laparoscopy or a laparotomy performed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    The diagnosis of a pelvic mass ultimately requires an exploratory laparotomy for confirmation.
    (2006) 60 ECRONH 2 159-179

  • Was a biopsy performed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    A biopsy is required to determine the cell pathology and ultimately determine the treatment plan and prognosis.
    (2006) 60 ECRONH 2 159-179

  • Were other diagnostic investigations performed to rule out extra-ovarian primary cancer? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Gastrointestinal cancer and breast cancer are the most common non-genital malignancies that metastasize to the ovary.
    (2001) 28 EOGCNA 4 637-651

  • Were additional diagnostic investigations performed to rule out an endometrial primary cancer(synchronous primary cancer)? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Synchronous primary cancers of the ovary and endometrium have been reported in about 10 percent of women with ovarian cancer and 5 percent of women with endometrial cancer.
    (2001) 28 EOGCNA 4 637-651

  • Which of the following treatment options were recommended? (Choose all that apply) Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Treatment is determined by the cytology and staging of the tumor.
    (2006) 60 ECRONH 2 159-179

  • Were follow-up evaluations advised? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Routine follow-up evaluations are necessary to offset any complications that may arise. Regular check-ups ensure that changes in health are quickly assessed and remedied.
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  • Which of the following diagnostic investigations were recommended for the patient with a palpable adnexal mass? (Choose all that apply) Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    The main objective of imaging in the evaluation of an adnexal mass is the determination of malignancy.
    (2008) 110 ESGYON 1 22-31