Failure to Diagnose & Delay in Treatment of Breast Cancer

Evaluate breaches in the standard of care when evaluating a Failure to Diagnose & Delay in Treatment of Breast Cancer

Answer the following questions to find out if the standard of care was followed for your case.

  • Was the patient 50 years of age or older?
    Yes
    No
    Why is this important?
    Breast cancer can be treated with early detection; routine screening is advised in women over the age of 50.
    (2009) 36 EPCCOP 3 533-558

  • Were yearly screenings advised? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Yearly mammograms are necessary for women over 40 years of age. Routine screening mammography is recommended for women between the ages 50 and 69 years, usually at intervals of one to two years based on the data from the randomized trials. Regular screening may be advised for those patients less than 40 years of age with significant medical and family history.
    (2009) 36 EPCCOP 3 533-558

  • What was the result of the recent screening? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    A mammography is, at present, is the best available examination for the detection of early signs of breast cancer. It can reveal pronounced evidence of abnormality, such as masses and calcifications, as well as subtle signs such as bilateral asymmetry and architectural distortion.
    (2007) 344 JFRNKI 3-4 312-348

  • Were follow-up evaluations advised? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Regular follow-up physical examinations, laboratory studies and diagnostic imaging evaluations are needed for effective follow-up care.
    (2002) 16 EHOCNA 4 907-926

  • With which of the following symptoms did the patient present?(Choose all that apply) Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Breast cancer symptoms may consist of palpable breast mass, breast pain, nipple discharge, skin or nipple retraction, skin swelling or nodules.
    (2003) 36 PREMED 3 374-378

  • Was a physical examination performed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    A complete medical history and carefully focused physical examination serve as the core of the diagnostic process. The information obtained guides the further direction of the patient's evaluation and enables the clinician to make the most judicious use of additional tests.
    Click here for additional information at ClinicalKey.com

  • Was any abnormality detected and documented during the breast examination? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Any abnormality with the physical breast examination must be documented, discussed with the patient, and follow-up discussed and prescribed.
    (2009) 36 EPCCOP 3 533

  • Did the patient have a positive family history of breast cancer? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Since breast cancer is one among the few cancers that has high genetic predisposition, it is necessary for the clinician to take a detailed history regarding the patient’s family history and other details that are risk factors in development of the disease.
    (2003) 29 ECANTR 2 79-89

  • Was genetic testing for the presence of Breast Cancer (BRCA) antigen recommended? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Breast Cancer Antigen (BRCA) mutation is said to have a direct influence on the development of breast cancer. Testing for the BRCA gene is vital for patients with a strong family history.
    (2003) 83 ESRCNA 4 733-751

  • What was the result of the genetic testing? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Mutations in several genes have been identified that significantly increase a woman's risk for breast cancer. These include BRCA1, BRCA2, P53, PTEN, STK11, CDH1, ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, and BRIP1.
    (2007) 87 ESRCNA 2 317-331

  • Was the patient referred to a specialist? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Referral to a breast specialist is required for all patients who present with symptoms like breast lumps, skin changes, nipple changes, or persistent unilateral breast pain and specific patient with history of breast and ovarian carcinoma.
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  • Was the patient discharged and later diagnosed with breast carcinoma? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Malignant calcifications tend to be numerous, clustered, small, varying in size and shape, angular, irregularly shaped, and branching in orientation. On the other hand, calcifications associated with benign diseases are generally larger, more rounded, smaller in number, more diffusely distributed, and more homogeneous in size and shape.
    (2007) 344 JFRNKI 3-4 312

  • What did the ultrasound reveal? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Patients with a solid mass detected in the ultrasound examination need to have a biopsy. Those with only cystic lesions should be followed-up on a periodic basis.
    (2009) 36 EPCCOP 3 533-558

  • Were prophylactic measures recommended? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    The individuals most likely to benefit from prophylactic mastectomy are Breast Cancer Antigen (BRCA) gene carriers and those who have a strong family history of breast cancer.
    (2007) 87 ESRCNA 2 317-331

  • Which of the following types of biopsies was performed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    The biopsy is the final diagnostic test that uses the histologic studies to confirm breast carcinoma. It can also be used as tool in grouping the type of cancer. There are various types of biopsy: percutaneous image guided biopsy, fine needle aspiration, core cutting needle biopsy, stereotactic biopsy and excisional biopsy.
    Click here for additional information at ClinicalKey.com

  • Was cyst aspiration performed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    For simple and complicated cysts, therapeutic aspiration and drainage is clinically indicated.
    (2012) 7 EULTRC 3 309-323

  • Which of the following types of breast cancer did the biopsy reveal? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    The diagnosis is based on the pathologic analysis of a tissue biopsy. Treatment is then determined by cell type.
    Click here for additional information at ClinicalKey.com

  • Was there recurrence of the cystic lesion? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    If the fluid in the cyst is non-bloody and the mass disappears after the initial aspiration, then no further evaluation is needed.
    Click here for additional information at ClinicalKey.com

  • Was an ultrasound of the patient’s breast recommended? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    A breast ultrasound has primarily been used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate palpable masses and to guide breast biopsy procedures. It has recently been studied for breast cancer screening in younger women with dense breasts because of the low sensitivity of mammography.
    (2009) 36 EPCCOP 3 533-558