Failure to Diagnose & Delay in Treatment of Bladder Cancer

Evaluate breaches in the standard of care when determining a Failure to Diagnose & Delay in Treatment of Bladder Cancer

Answer the following questions to find out if the standard of care was followed for your case.

  • With which of the following symptoms did the patient present?
    Hematuria
    Urinary frequency
    Dysuria
    Symptoms not elicited
    Answer unknown
    Urgency
    Why is this important?
    Patients with bladder cancer classically present with painless hematuria.
    (2002) 41 ECRONH 1 89

  • Was a detailed medical history obtained? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Bladder cancer is caused by genetic abnormalities and external risk factors, including carcinogen exposure, nutritional factors, fluid intake, alcohol, inflammation, infection, chemotherapy, radiation and possibly artificial sweeteners.
    Click here for additional information at ClinicalKey.com

  • With which of the following risk factors did the patient present? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Risk factors for bladder cancer include age above 40 years, current or former cigarette smoking, an occupational exposure, previous urologic disease and recurrent urinary tract infections.
    (2006) 67 UROLOG 3S1 3-8

  • Was a physical examination performed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    A complete medical history and carefully focused physical examination serve as the core of the diagnostic process. The information obtained guides the further direction of the patient's evaluation and enables the clinician to make the most judicious use of additional tests.
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  • Which of the following laboratory studies were performed? (choose all that apply) Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Urine cytology is routinely used by most urologic specialists in the work-up of bladder cancer.
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  • Which of the following imaging studies were performed? (choose all that apply) Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Computed tomography is the preferred imaging procedure to assess the local extent of disease and to further examine the renal pelvis and ureters.
    (1999) 31 ECRONH 3 193-207

  • Was the patient referred to an urologist? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Immediate referral to a urologist is essential for surgical intervention and follow-up.
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  • Was a cystoscopy performed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    A cystoscopy is the gold standard for the initial diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer.
    (2006) 67 UROLOG 3S1 3-8

  • What was the result of the cystoscopy? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    If there are abnormalities seen during the cystoscopy, either a biopsy or a resection must be performed.
    (1999) 31 ECRONH 3 193-207

  • Did the clinician obtain an informed consent? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    The laws of most states require that surgeons obtain informed consent before providing treatment.
    (2011) 23 EOMSCA 3 475-484

  • Were possible complications of surgery explained to the patient before the surgery? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Cystectomy is a major operation, and the complications and side effects can be serious.
    Click here for additional information at Cancer.org

  • Did the clinician discuss reconstructive surgery for the patient undergoing radical cystectomy Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    If the entire bladder is removed, the patient will need another way to store and remove urine from the body. This can only be accomplished through reconstructive surgery.
    Click here for additional information at Cancer.org

  • Were the side effects of chemotherapy discussed prior to initiation of treatment? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    The laws of most states require that physicians obtain informed consent before providing treatment.
    (2011) 23 EOMSCA 3 475-484

  • Were the side effects of radiation therapy discussed prior to initiation of treatment? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    The laws of most states require that physicians obtain informed consent before providing treatment.
    (2011) 23 EOMSCA 3 475-484

  • Were follow-up evaluations advised? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Routine follow-up evaluations are necessary to offset any complications that may arise. Regular check-ups ensure that changes in health are quickly assessed and remedied.
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  • Was a biopsy performed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    If bladder cancer is suspected, a biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis.
    Click here for additional information at Cancer.org

  • With which of the following types of bladder cancer was diagnosed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    The grade and the stage of the tumor are strong prognostic factors and primary determinants of therapy.
    (1999) 31 ECRONH 3 193-207

  • Which of the following treatment options were initiated? (Choose all that apply) Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    Either a radical cystectomy or a urethrectomy is mandatory since these tumors tend to be resistant to both radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
    (2002) 41 ECRONH 1 89-106

  • Was a radical cystectomy performed? Why is this important?
    Answer this question
    A radical cystectomy is the preferred treatment for squamous cell carcinoma.
    Click here for additional information at ClinicalKey.com